A.      Introduction

1.      This section is incorporated into these specifications to address the widely recognized view that air leakage can be linked directly or indirectly to the most prevalent building envelope performance and durability problems.  The best way to insure adequate thermal performance, comfort, and avoid moisture problems in the building envelope is to prevent air from uncontrollably flowing into and out of the occupied space.


2.      The Work in this Section shall comply with the requirements for LEEDTM Certification.  Refer to SECTION 01005: ENVIRONMENTAL GOALS AND LEEDTM CERTIFICATION.  The credits applicable to this section are as follows:


a.   EA   Prerequisite 2: Minimum Energy Performance

b.   EA   Credits 1.1 and 1.2: Optimized Energy Performance

c.   MR Credit 2.1   Construction Waste Management

d.   MR Credit 5.1   Local / Regional Materials     

e.   EQ Credit 3.1   Construction IAQ Management Plan

f. EQ Credit 4.1 Low-Emitting Materials, Adhesives and Sealants

    1. Intent: This section of the specification is intended to define the quantitative and qualitative requirements for the products, materials, and workmanship for the air barrier “system” of the thermal envelope of this building.  “The air barrier system of the building envelope for this building is to be constructed to provide a continuous, structurally supported plane of materials to contain the indoor air (exfiltration) and to prevent outdoor air from entering the building (infiltration).  The intent of the design is for the building to perform in accordance with the following requirements:

 a.      The building envelope will incorporate a continuous air barrier system, as per the 1990 National Building Code, Article 5.3.1.

Specifier Note: The performance standards below are industry recommendations, but the specifier should list obligations for compliance to meet specific project goals. 

 b.      The maximum air leakage through the air barrier system within the roof area and associated penthouse envelope components is not to exceed 0.15 L/s·m2 @ 75 Pa.

 c.      The maximum air leakage through the air barrier system within the areas of the exterior walls (brick veneer steel stud backup) from the roof to grade (excluding windows, doors, etc.) is not to exceed 0.75 L/s·m2 @ 75 Pa.

 d.      The maximum air leakage through curtain walls, skylights, windows, and exterior doors must conform to the ASTM E 283 standards for the specific application.

 e.      The maximum air leakage through joints between the air barrier components of various assemblies is not to exceed 0.20 L/s·m @ 75 Pa.

 f.      The air barrier system in all parts of the building envelope is to be designed to support maximum wind loads, (30-year) frequency." 

    1. For this project, the performance requirements are identified in the design of the air barrier system and the construction will be certified through compliance testing and review at the completion of the building envelope.  In order to help the Contractor meet the standards required to pass the compliance test, a methodology for testing the air barrier components during the construction process is included in Section 3.03 –FIELD QUALITY ASSURANCE below.
  1. Work included in this section


    1. General: Provide all labor, materials equipment, and labor necessary to install the air barrier system indicated on the drawings.
    2. The air barrier system shall be a field-applied system consisting of continuous, sealed, semi-vapor permeable air barrier materials equivalent to or less than 0.02 l/s•m2 @ 75 Pa. 
    3. Air sealing measures required for this Work include, but are not necessarily limited to:
    4. Air sealants at the following locations:

 a.      All cracks and spaces (wider than 1/8" and narrower than 1 1/2") between rough openings and jambs of windows, skylights, louvers, and doors.

 b.      All blind corners, openings and cracks in the framing or exterior sheathing, including but not limited to joist pockets, metal deck flutes, change in materials, louver blank of panels.

 c.      All penetrations for plumbing and utility vents, wiring, coaxial cable, telephone wires and as required to seal infiltration leaks too large for caulking.

  d.      All foundation sills and joist headers between floors, all cantilevered joists.

  e.      All cracks between exterior foundation insulation and sheathed, framed walls.

 f.      Behind and around all electrical boxes, conduit, ducts, fans, and piping.

  g.      All prefabricated rigid insulation panel joints.

    1. The exterior sheathing air sealed with polyurethane caulk or air barrier tape.
    2. Spray-applied polyurethane foam at exterior walls.
    3. Membrane air/vapor barrier materials at connections at transitions between dissimilar materials.
    4. Continuous, sealed vapor retarder plastic films.
    5. Semi-permeable air barrier films.
    6. Built-up roofing incorporated into the air barrier system work is indicated on drawings and by provisions of this section and is defined to include roofing, insulation immediately under roofing, composition flashing and stripping and roofing accessories integrally related to roof installation continuously sealed to the adjoining air barrier materials of the building envelope.
    7. Polymer Based (PB) EIF Systems are acceptable only in locations not subject to direct abuse (5'-0" minimum above finished grade).  Polymer modified (PM) EIF Systems shall be used where direct abuse is a reasonable possibility, such as building areas adjacent to sidewalks, hard play areas, and other locations in close proximity to finished grade.  This system must be continuously sealed to the adjoining air barrier materials of the building envelope. 
    8. The following materials are not acceptable as air barrier components:

  a.       Materials with an air permeability greater than 0.02 l/s•m2 @ 75 Pa.


  1. Related work specified elsewhere:


    4. Section 01400: Quality Control Services
    6. Section 01740: Warranties and Bonds
    10. SECTION 05200: METAL JOIST
    11. SECTION 05300: METAL DECK
    25. Section 09250: Gypsum Sheathing


Specifier Note: Add any applicable references to warranties required in Division 7 – Thermal and Moisture Protection – Section 07220 Air Barriers, to Section 01740 - Warranties and Bonds


  1. Reference Standards:
    1. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
    2. US Green Building Council – LEED Green Building Rating System, Version 2.0
    3. 1990 National Building Code

1.04        SUBMITTALS

  1. Submit certification of location for manufacturing of materials in this section. (LEEDTM requirement)
  1. Submit warranties, bonds, and service and maintenance contracts as specified in the respective sections of Specifications.
  1. Requirements:  Warranties required shall include, but shall not be limited to, the following:
    1. Ice dams: Five (5) year guarantee.  Thermal envelope components (insulation, vapor retarders, air barriers, and roof ventilation systems) should be provided and installed in such a manner as to guarantee against problematic ice dam formations for a period of at least 5 years.
    2. Pipe and equipment freeze-ups: Five (5) year guarantee.  Thermal envelope components (insulation, vapor retarders, and air barriers systems) should be provided and installed in such a manner as to guarantee against plumbing and equipment freeze-ups for a period of at least 5 years.
    3. Air Barrier: Five (5) year guarantee.  Air barrier components should be provided and installed in such a manner as to guarantee that the building air leakage rates are less than the performance standard set in this section for a period of at least five (5) years.

 a.      The Approved Installer shall provide written air-tightness warranty for a minimum of five (5) years against leaks in the entire air barrier system, arising out of or caused by ordinary wear and tear under normal weather and atmospheric conditions.  The warrantee must state that all air barrier materials have been installed as specified and are free from defects in manufacturing and installation.  The warranty shall commence on date of Owner acceptance.

b.      Installer’s Guarantee (Project):  Submit three (3) executed copies of full five (5) year Guarantee" on a form approved by Owner.

  1. Submit two (2) copies of manufacturer's specifications, product data, and installation instructions for each type of air barrier material or system used.
  2. Submit two (2) copies of manufacturer's MSDS sheet for each type of insulation required.
  3. Provide daily test shot samples of foamed-in-place polyurethane to the Architect from each batch of foam for the Architect's approval.
  4. Certified Testing: When required by the contract documents, submit copies of certified test reports showing compliance with specified performance values.
  5. Samples:
    1. Submit samples of air barrier system materials for approval prior to beginning the work.  Samples shall clearly indicate each component of the system and shall be of suitable size to accurately represent each building envelope transition condition. Production Data:  Submit manufacturer’s product information, specifications, and installation instructions for air barrier components and accessories.
    2. Installer Certification:  Submit certificate one week prior to bid date that the installer has been regularly engaged in the installation of the air barrier systems specified.
    3. Each sample shall be fabricated using the same tools and techniques as required for the actual application.
    4. One (1) approved sample shall be available and maintained at the job site.
  6. Reports, Calculations, and Certificates:
    1. Submit copies of selected test reports by independent laboratories verifying the air permeability performance of the air barrier components.     
    2. Applicator shall submit a copy of his current certificate of membership as an approved applicator of the approved air barrier system.

J.    Mock Up:  Refer to Section 04200: Unit Masonry.


A.     The Owner will conduct building air-tightness testing for the following:

1.      Air barrier component quality assurance testing during the construction phase.

2.      LEEDTM certification testing.

3.      Air tightness compliance testing.

4.      Air barrier commissioning tests.

B.     The maximum air leakage performance standard established in SECTION 07390 - Exterior Envelope Minimum Performance Criteria will be tested to verify building air-tightness is in compliance with this specification. 

C.     Pre-Construction Conference:  Prior to installation, and as soon as possible after the award of the air barrier related sub-contracts, meet at project site.  At this meeting, the parties will review the intent and goals of the air barrier system, representative details, and discuss substrate conditions.  Review the requirements of contract documents, submittal, status of coordinating work, availability of materials, proposed installation sequencing, installation facilities and proposed installation schedule, requirements for inspections, testing, certifications, forecasted weather conditions (when applicable), governing regulations, insurance and warrantee requirements, and proposed installation procedures. The Contractor shall schedule and attend a meeting with:

1.      The air barrier sub-contractor;

2.      The air barrier product manufacturers’ representatives (when applicable);

3.      Installers of all substrate construction;

4.      Architect;

5.      Owner, and;

6.      Representatives of other entities directly concerned with the performance of the air barrier system including all other work adjoining the air barrier system, including penetrating work and window, door, and rooftop units.

D.     Discussions will include the following design criteria:

1.      Air barrier continuity.

2.      Methods of sealing dissimilar air barrier materials.

3.      Longevity of air barrier components.

4.      Thermal Expansion:  Resistant to stress from 100F temperature shift.

5.      Substrate deflection.

6.      Impact of wetting on air barrier material integrity.

E.      Include in each weekly job meeting a review of the air barrier installation issues for current and upcoming work.

F.      Single Source Responsibility:  Provide only products supplied by a single EIFS manufacturer.

G.     Qualifications

1.      Manufacturer:

a.      Shall have marketed the specified air barrier systems in the United States for at least ten (10) years.

  b.      Shall have a record of satisfactory completion of at least twenty-five (25) projects utilizing the specified air barrier system(s).

  c.      Shall comply with the Air Barrier Association of America standards for air barrier materials and systems, including overall building envelope air leakage performance.

 d.      Shall have been approved for use by the following Model Building Code organizations in published research or compliance reports:

i.         BOCA Basic Building Code


Specifier note: Add other code jurisdictions per project location

2.      Applicator:

  a.      Shall have trained and certified personnel qualified in the installation of the approved air barrier materials and system(s).

b.      (Shall have a current certificate of membership in approved manufacturers trained network of applicators).

 c.      Firm with not less than (five) years experience in the installation of air barrier systems similar to requirements for this project and which is acceptable to manufacturer.

d.      Roofing contractor shall be an authorized installer of the approved manufacturer.



  1. All materials supplied by the Approved Manufacturer(s) shall be delivered to the site location in the original unopened containers and packages with labels intact unless shipped in containers approved by the Manufacturer.  Upon arrival, materials shall be inspected for damage.  Notify the manufacturer should damaged, incorrect or otherwise unsatisfactory material be encountered. Unsatisfactory materials, including temperature-sensitive materials damaged by freezing, shall not be used.
  1. All air barrier materials shall be stored in a cool dry location, out of sunlight, protected from weather and other damage and at temperatures not less than 40 degrees F, unless required by the approved Manufacturer.


  1. Coordination of work: Coordinate the work of this section with interfacing and adjoining work for proper sequencing of each installation.  Ensure best possible weather resistance and durability of work and protection of materials and finishes.
    1. Installation of air barrier system and quality assurance procedures shall be coordinated with other construction trades.
    2. Tops of walls shall be immediately covered to avoid water infiltration.
    3. All sealants shall be installed in a timely manner to avoid water infiltration.
    4. Sufficient manpower shall be employed to ensure a continuous operation, free of cold joints, scaffolding lines, or other conditions that would adversely affect integrity of system and finished appearance.
  1. Environmental Conditions:
    1. The ambient air temperature shall be a minimum of 40 degrees F or greater and rising at the time of installation of the air barrier materials and shall remain at 40 degrees F for at least 24 hours after application.  Manufacturers’ recommendations shall control if their requirements are stricter.
    2. Application of the air barrier materials shall not take place during inclement weather unless appropriate protection acceptable to the manufacturer is employed or the manufacturer warrants that the materials are not susceptible to inclement weather conditions. Proceed with roofing work only when existing and forecasted weather conditions will permit work to be performed in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations and warranty requirements.
  1. Protection:
    1. Surrounding materials and areas shall be protected during the installation of the air barrier system.
    2. Remove sharp protrusions that could damage air barrier materials.
    3. Any EIF Systems employed in this project shall be protected from weather and other damage immediately after installation, including damage from installation of flashing and sealants.
    4. Protect installed air barrier and insulation materials from physical damage and from becoming wet, soiled, or covered with ice or snow between phases of the work or after the completed installation. Do not expose to sunlight, except to the extent necessary for period of installation and concealment.
    5. Protect the premises from damage. Protect against ignition at all times.
    6. Thermal protection of raw materials, protect from freezing or extreme heat. Maintain chemical components at a minimum of 60 degrees or as recommended by the manufacturer while stored on site.
    7. Fire protection: The code states that the use of completely exposed foamed plastics in interior applications presents a fire hazard unless the foam is protected by one of the code approved 15 minute fire resistive barriers (usually 1/2" sheetrock, lath and plaster, or other approved finish or coating). Code requirements, if any, for unoccupied areas should also be followed. Comply with insurance ratings indicated.
    8. Health and safety: There are odors, particulates, and vapors related to the curing and processing of various air barrier systems, sealants, and polyurethane foams. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for each product during the installation.  Provide the recommended levels of ventilation and alert anyone with respiratory sensitivities to evacuate the premises while the work is being done.  Protect areas where ventilation is adequate with signage and require personnel in the unvented area to wear proper breathing protection. The work shall be executed in accordance with Section 01410 – Indoor Air Quality Management (LEED requirement).


  1. A qualified technical representative of the installer(s) shall be available to make recommendations necessary to insure compliance with the specifications and to make recommendations where unforeseen conditions become apparent to the Architect.
  2. As soon as all construction under this Section, as well as any construction which could in any way affect construction under this Section, has been completed, a qualified representative of the installer(s) shall make a final inspection of the air barrier system.






A.    Local/Regional Materials: Materials and systems in this section shall, where feasible, be manufactured within a 500-mile radius of Concord, NH. (LEEDTM requirement)

B. Air and vapor retarder membranes:

    1. Air/Vapor Barrier Membrane (Air Barrier/Vapor retarder) type 1: Sheet membrane vapor barrier, equivalent to Bakor “Blueskin SA”. (exterior wall applications): 40-mil thick, self-adhering  membrane SBS rubberized  asphalt compound integrally laminated to a cross laminated polyethylene film.
    2. Tape: bright aluminum or polyester self-adhering type, mesh reinforced, 2” wide, compatible with the air barrier materials that are to be sealed to each other or the substrate.
    3. "Vaporstop" vapor retarder by Fortifiber Corporation (508-222-3500). Adhesive:  As manufactured by Lion Oil (1-800-643-1506).
    4. Continuous, sealed vapor retarder plastic films equivalent to Tu-tuff or 6-mil. polyethylene.  Must meet ASTM D 4397, 6 mils (.015mm) thick with maximum permeance rating of .013 perm.  (7.5n./Pa x S x sq. m).
    5. Semi-permeable air barrier films equivalent to: Dupont Company’s ”Tyvek”. Building wrap with a thickness of 0.0105. conforming to the following standards:

a.      Bursting strength (ASTMD-774):  123 psi.

b.      Flame spread (ASTM E-84) 0.

 c.      Smoke Development (ASTM E-84) 25 (maximum).


  1. Spray-applied polyurethane foam insulation / sealant:

Specifier note: parts of this specification section are a manufacturer-specific, proprietary product specification using the proprietary method of specifying applicable to project specifications and master guide specifications.

    1. Rigid, field-applied polyurethane foam (or alternate to polyurethane foam – Zero ODP SUPERGREEN FOAMTM ) having a non-chlorofluorocarbon (Non-CFC) (or HFC- see alternate blowing agent) blowing agent as provided by FOAM-TECH or approved equal, with an in-place density of 2.1 - 2.5 lbs. per cubic foot in the exterior walls, ceilings and floors.  Foam product will be a standard polyurethane or polyisocyanurate 2-component mix for producing rigid, self-adhered, closed-cell insulation /sealant.
    2. (Alternate Blowing agent: HFC 134a zero ozone depletion potential (ODP))
    3. Shall meet ASTM specification ASTM C578, Type IV
    4. Nominal Density:  2.0 – 2.5 lbs/cu. ft.
    5. Minimum compressive strength:  30 PSI (ASTM C 1621-73)
    6. Maximum water absorption:  3% by volume (ASTM C272-76)
    7. Closed cell content: 90 percent minimum.
    8. K-value: 0.15 minimum when aged 90 days at 140o F dry heat.
    9. Shall be labeled with Model Building Code approvals and UL listings.
    10. Surface-burning characteristics: Maximum flame-spread and smoke developed indices of 75 and 450, respectively, based on tests performed on un-faced core by ASTM E-84 test method.
    11. Follow manufacturer’s recommendations for maximum pass thickness.


  1. Joint sealants and other sealants specifically related to the Air Barrier system:
    1. Sealants shall comply with the VOC (volatile organic compound) content limit of 250 g/l for “Architectural Sealants” of BAAQMD Reg. 8, Rule 51 “Adhesive and Sealant Products” (LEED requirement)
    2. Comply with manufacturer's recommendations and EIMA Guidelines for compatible sealants and application procedures.
    3. Provide joint sealants that establish and maintain airtight continuous joint seals without staining or deteriorating joint substrates.
    4. Elastomeric Sealants:  Comply with ASTM C 920 and other requirements indicated for each liquid-applied chemically curing sealant specified, including those referencing ASTM C 920 classifications for type, grade, class, and uses related to exposure and joint substrates.
    5. Stain-Test-Response Characteristics:  Where elastomeric sealants are specified to be non-staining to porous substrates, provide products that have undergone testing according to ASTM C 1248 and have not stained porous joint substrates indicated for Project.
    6. Suitability for Contact with Food:  Where elastomeric sealants are indicated for joints that will come in repeated contact with food, provide products that comply with 21 CFR 177.2600.
    7. Single-Component Non-sag Polysulfide Sealant:

  a.      Available products

i.         Pacific Polymers, Inc.; Elastoseal 230 Types I (Gun Grade).

ii.       Polymeric Systems Inc.; PSI-7000.

b.      Type and Grade: S (single component) and NS (non-sag).

c.       Class: 25.

d.      Use Related to Exposure: NT (non-traffic).

 e.      Uses Related to Joint Substrates: M, G, A, and, as applicable to joint substrates indicated, O.

    1. Single-Component Neutral-Curing Silicone Sealant:

 a.      Available products

i.         Dow Corning Corporation; 799.

ii.       GE Silicones; UltraGlaze SG4000.

iii.      GE Silicones; UltraGlaze SSG4000AC.

iv.     Polymeric System Inc.; PSI-631.

v.       Schnee-Morehead, Inc.; SM5731 Poly-Glaze Plus.

vi.     Tremco; Proglaze SG.

vii.    Tremco; Spectrem 2.

viii.  Tremco; Tremsil 600.

b.      Type and Grade: S (single component) and NS (non-sag).

c.      Class 25.

d.      Use Related to Exposure: NT (non-traffic).

  e.      Uses Related to Joint Substrates: M, G, A, and, as applicable to joint substrates indicated, O.

    1. Single-component Nonsag polyurethane Sealant:

  a.      Available products

i.         Sika Corporation, Inc.; Sikaflex – la.

ii.       Sika Corporation, Inc.; Sikaflex – 15LM.

iii.      Sonneborn, Division of ChemRex Inc.; Ultra.

iv.     Sonneborn, Division of ChemRex Inc.; NP 1.

v.       Tremco; Vulkem 116.

b.      Type and Grade: S (single component) and NS (non-sag).

c.      Class 100/50.

d.      Use Related to Exposure: T (traffic) and NT (non-traffic).

  e.      Uses Related to Joint Substrates: M, G, A, and, as applicable to joint substrates indicated, O.

    1. Acoustical Sealant for Exposed and Concealed Joints:

  a.      Available products

i.         Pecora Corporation; AC-20 FTR Acoustical and Insulation Sealant.

ii.       United States Gypsum Co.; SHEETROCK Acoustical Sealant.

    1. Acoustical Sealant for Concealed Joints:

 a.      Available products

i.         Pecora Corporation; BA-98.

ii.       Tremco; Tremco Acoustical Sealant.

    1. Type 1:  "AC-20+Silicone"; one part, non-sag, acrylic latex caulk, complying with ASTM C834-86.
    2. Type 2:  "Dynatrol I"; one part polyurethane, non-sag (Type II), 25% maximum movement capability for extension/compression; complying with FS TT-230C and ASTM C920.
    3. Type 3:  "Urexpan NR-201"; one part polyurethane, self-leveling (Type I), 25% maximum movement capability for extension/compression; complying with FS TT-S-230C, ASTM C920 and ASTM D1850.
    4. Type 4:  "AC-20FTR"; one part, modified acrylic latex acoustical sealant, complying with ASTM C834-86.
    5. Polyurethane Foam:  Pur-Fill 1 G, non-CFC, low expansion, water cure polyurethane foam. Note: A Pageris foam gun applicator makes it easier to install this product.
    6. Acoustical Sealant:  Tremco Products Acoustical Sealant.  Note: A pneumatic caulking gun makes it easier to install this product.
    7. Polyurethane Caulk:  Ohio Sealants, Inc., OSI PR-255 polyurethane caulk, or equal.
    8. Acrylic Adhesive Tape:  3M 8086 Contractors Tape (or equal).  Note: A $15 hand dispenser makes this product much more convenient to use.
  1. EIFS Systems:
    1.  Dryvit "Ultralation" System (Type PM). 
    2. "Insul/Crete" System (Parex, Inc.; Redan, Georgia)
  1. Fasteners:
    1. Expansion Fastener: Concrete and masonry substrates - expandable sheath with corrosion resistant hammer driven pin, pre-drilled and used with the manufacturer's washer attachment. Anchor spacing not to exceed 12" vertically and 16" horizontally, with minimum penetration of 1".
  1. Reinforcing Fabric:
    1. Shall be balanced, open weave glass fiber fabric.
    2. PB (Polymer Based) System:  "Primus" acrylic-based adhesive/base coat, field mixed with Portland cement in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.
  1. Accessories (As indicated on the Drawings):  Expansion joints, control joints and corner beads of zinc or exterior grade vinyl as supplied by EIF System manufacturer.


3.01        GENERAL

A.    The work shall be executed in accordance with the IAQ Construction Management Plan (LEEDTM requirement)


  1. Examine substrate surfaces to receive the air barrier materials and associated work and conditions under which the air barrier system will be installed.  Do not proceed with the work until unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected in a manner acceptable to the Installer and complying with manufacturer's standards.
    1. Prior to beginning work, examine all substrates for soundness, such as tightness of connections, crumbling or looseness of surface, level tolerance of surface, and other conditions when would affect the installation.
    2. Notify the Owner of any adverse or unsatisfactory conditions.  Work shall not proceed until such conditions are corrected. Inspect roof deck to verify in writing that deck is clean and smooth, free of depressions, waves, or projections, properly sloped to eaves.
    3. Verify in writing that deck is dry and free of snow or ice.  Joints in insulation/sheathing to be solidly supported and nailed.
    4. Inspect structural steel frame to verify that the frame is complete, properly aligned and configured, and will allow fastening of panels and subgirts in accordance with manufacturer's requirements.  Notify Architect in writing of any conditions that would interfere with the installation.  Do not proceed until such deficiencies have been corrected.
    5. Beginning of installation implies acceptance of condition of substrate and of adjacent work. Do not proceed with installation until conditions are satisfactory.


  1. Comply with manufacturer's published specifications for ply lapping, asphalt application, fastener recommendations, roof edge details and base flashing details.


  1. Cooperate with inspection and quality assurance test procedures.


  1. Coordinate the installation of insulation, air barrier material, flashings, stripping, coatings and surfacings, so that weather sensitive materials are not exposed to precipitation nor exposed overnight. 

3.04        PREPARATION

  1. Clean, prepare, and size joints in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. Remove any loose materials and other foreign matter that might impair adhesion of air barrier tapes, sealants, and other adhered air barrier system components.
  1. Installation shall conform to Approved Manufacturer's printed recommendations and instructions, except as otherwise specified herein or as shown on the drawings.
  1. Lap, lock, clean, seam and seal all joints.
  1. Joint Priming: Prime joint substrates, where recommended in writing by joint-sealant manufacturer, based on preconstruction joint-sealant-substrate tests or prior experience.  Apply primer to comply with joint-sealant manufacturer’s written instructions.  Confine primers to areas of joint-sealant bond; do not allow spillage or migration onto adjoining surfaces.

3.05        INSTALLATION

  1. Air and vapor retarder membranes:

1.      Self -Adhesive Air/Vapor Membrane:

  a.      Blueskin SA must be lapped a minimum of 2”on both sides and end laps.  Position membrane for alignment; remove protective film and press firmly into place.

b.      When membrane is entirely in place, roll membrane including all seams with a counter top roller to ensure full contact.

 c.      Seal around any openings and at leading edge at the end of the days work with AIR- BLOC 21, or other approved sealing product.   Application temp 41F minimum.

 d.      Detail work must be carefully carried out to ensure continuous air tightness of the membrane. It is recommended that mechanical attachment or a properly designed sealant joint be provided at window and doorframes.

2.      Membrane Primer:

 a.      Apply by brush, roller or spray at the rate of 85 to 250 sq. ft. per gallon. Rollers should have a heavy nap of natural material such as lamb’s wool. Allow primer to dry for 30 minutes before applying membrane. Primed surfaces not covered by membrane during the working day must be re-primed. Application temp -54F to 104F.  Ventilate during membrane primer installation with 100% outside air as needed to maintain an acceptable level of indoor air in accordance with Section 01410 – Indoor Air Quality Management (LEED requirement)

  1. Spray-applied polyurethane foam:

1.      Process a two-component polyurethane foam system with 1:1 ratio by volume, positive-displacement, industry-standard pumping equipment.

2.      Monitor and maintain the component ratio and mix the components of the polyurethane chemicals in accordance with the manufacturer's product specifications and processing instructions to achieve the desired density and physical properties.  Verify the product component ratio with flow meters and programmable ratio monitoring equipment that can prevent the installation of product that is off-ratio by more than the manufacturer’s prescribed limits.

3.      Monitor and maintain the component temperatures in accordance with the manufacturer's product specifications and processing instructions to achieve the desired density and physical properties.

4.      Apply to a minimum or average cured depth as required in the contract documents.  Average thickness specifications will be to a ½” plus-or-minus tolerance.

5.      Spray the mixed foam onto the substrate in multiple rises -- increments as recommended by the manufacturer. The foam will expand and give off heat.

6.      Chemical components are to be maintained at a minimum of 60 degrees while stored on site.

7.      Access for spray foam equipment and vehicles shall not be more than 150' from the farthest wall or roof cavity to be injected.

8.      The temperature of the cavities, cracks, etc. must be a minimum of forty (40 – varies with foam system specified) degrees during foaming and for a forty-eight (48) hour period after foam has been placed in the wall cavity.  If the exterior (ambient) temperature is below 40 degrees, the interior temperature must be maintained at 40 degrees for a minimum of eight (8) hours prior to sealing and forty-eight (48) hours after completion. The outside temperature should not be less than 20 degrees unless the outside is protected by temporary or permanent thermal insulation.

9.      During foam operations, the above temperature requirements must be met while providing two (2) air changes per hour or as needed to maintain an acceptable level of indoor air quality for ventilation for installation personnel in accordance with Section 01410 – Indoor Air Quality Management (LEED requirement). Heat during foaming operations shall be provided by vented or non-open flame sources.

10.  Caulking shall be required with approved caulking compound or other sealant at all locations requiring an infiltration seal, but too small (1/8" or less) for foam sealant.

11.  Trim foam flush with the inside surfaces. Remove foam from finished surfaces such as window glass, casings, and gypsum board.


a.      Wiring, conduit, boxes, etc. shall be braced or fastened securely so that expansion of foam sealant shall not cause wiring to "float". Wiring shall be located within the wall/ceiling cavity to be foamed, so as to prevent damage to wiring during the trimming and/or planing of the foam.

 b.      Clear all cracks, spaces, voids, and openings to be sealed of debris, moisture, ice, and materials prior to the commencement of foaming operations. Clean substrates of substances harmful to insulations, including moisture, dirt, or unbonded coatings that will effect the insulation or prevent an airtight seal. Hold exterior air barrier materials to the outside of the spaces around rough openings to allow a jamb to framing seal.

c.      Cover all joints and close off openings to prevent foam leakage. Check to insure that the cavities to be sealed are properly finished, that they are free of debris and that the surfaces are anchored to framing members.

d.      Mask areas to be protected from over-spray.

e.      All window and doorjambs shall be adequately braced, if necessary, to prevent the expanding foam sealant from bowing or springing the jamb or jamb extension. Foam sealant in these spaces shall be adequate to create a seal, but the spaces do not have to be filled unless required in the Contract Documents (reduces the need for bracing).


a.       Access for spray foam installation hoses, equipment and vehicles: not more than 150' (hose length) from the farthest wall, roof, or floor cavity to be sealed.

b.      Power for spray equipment shall be one, 50-amp, 220-volt circuit and two dedicated standard plug receptacles located within 100 ' of vehicle access points.

 c.      Non-metallic electrical wiring in spray-applied or injected building sections shall be Type NMB or NMC-B located a minimum of 1" from surface to be drilled.

C.     Sealants:

1.      Install sealant in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.

2.      Pre-construction Field-Adhesion Testing:  Before installing sealants, field test their adhesion to Project joint substrates according to the method in ASTM C 1193 that is appropriate for the types of Project joints.

3.      Caulking shall be required with approved caulking compound or other sealant at all locations requiring an infiltration seal, but too small (1/8" or less) for foam sealant.

4.      Joint Priming:  Prime joint substrates, where recommended in writing by joint-sealant manufacture, based on preconstruction joint-sealant-substrate tests or prior experience.  Apply primer to comply with joint-sealant manufacturer’s written instructions.  Confine primers to areas of joint-sealant bond; do not allow spillage or migration onto adjoining surfaces.

5.      EIFS Systems:

 a.      a. Base Coat

i.         Base coat shall be mixed in accordance with manufacturer's instructions and applied to insulated wall surfaces trowelling the material into the reinforcing fabric in a tight coat and doubling back to 1/8" -3/16" thickness.  (Refer to EIF System Application Instructions for proper thickness).  Base coats shall be applied to level out surface areas and to fill joints smooth with adjacent area.

ii.       The mesh shall be fully embedded into the wet adhesive/base coat mixture.  The mesh pattern shall not be visible.

iii.      Allow the base coat to dry for a period of at least 24 hours before applying finish coat.

iv.     Correct surface imperfections prior to applying finish coat.

v.       Prior to installation of the EIF System on glass block, the surface shall be completely cleaned with a mild detergent, rinsed with clean water, and allowed to dry.  The surface shall be free of dirt, debris and soap film.

vi.     Perform a "pull-off" test.  Apply a sample of polystyrene insulation board to the cleaned glass block surface with manufacturer's adhesive/base coat.  Adhesive base coat shall be properly mixed and applied in accordance with Manufacturer's recommendations.  Allow sample to dry for minimum of time recommended by manufacturer.  Attempt to pull the insulation off the glass block surface in the presence of the Manufacturer's Representative and Owner.

vii.    Do not proceed unless adhesion of test sample is satisfactory.  Perform a second cleaning of glass block surface if adhesion proves inadequate, and perform a second "pull-off" test.

viii.  Seal exterior joints subject to moisture penetration and interior joints exposed to view with sealant.

ix.     Perform work in accordance with latest ASTM requirements for type of sealant and type of application.

D.     Install sealant in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.


  1. Current thinking in the building science community is that field-testing of the building envelope for air-tightness performance will improve the quality of the air barrier’s performance and must have enforceable consequences.  Commissioning the air barrier system will improve the performance and durability of the air barrier system.  Commissioning is normally associated with mechanical and electrical systems in a building where the process of verifying the performance of HVAC systems to determine if the construction complies with the design documents and the specified performance ratings.  Commissioning the air barrier system verifies the measurable design performance requirements for maximum air leakage rate and demonstrates structural support, material qualities, and durability of the air barrier system.
  1. During installation, the approved manufacturer, or its authorized representative will inspect the work, in order to ensure compliance with installation instructions.
  1. Make all repairs or modifications resulting from use of improper materials or procedures, at no additional cost to the Owner.
  1. Quality Assurance Testing:
    1. Each component of the air barrier system will be pre-tested during the construction at each building envelope milestone so as to avoid the necessity of removing or damaging subsequent installations by other trades.  Any repairs required to complete the air barrier to meet the compliance standard will be the responsibility of the Contractor and will be made at no additional cost to the Owner.
    2. The contractors will cooperate fully with the testing contractors or agencies.
    3. Quality assurance testing will be completed by one of the following methods approved in advance by the Architect or the Owner:

a.      Pressurized or depressurized theatrical fog testing

 b.      Pressurized or depressurized infrared testing

c.      Compartmentalized blower door testing

d.      Tracer gas testing

    1. Alternate approvals:

 a.      Physical inspection of the installation by a qualified third-party with experience in air barrier installations, certifications, and/or commissioning at a frequency approved by the Architect.

Specifier note: Insert other approved method(s) appropriate for the specific project.

    1. Quality assurance testing by prescribed or approved alternate test methods in no way relieves the Contractor of responsibility for any work required to meet the compliance test standard or for compliance with any other Contract Document requirements.
    2. Pressurized Fog Testing: Specifier note: See attached Document – “What is a Pressurized Fog Test?” for any language that is to be included here.
    3. Pressurized Infrared Testing: Specifier note: See attached Document – “What is an Infrared Scan?” for any language that is to be included here.


  1. The proof-of-design performance may take many forms, but is likely to be one of the following:
    1. Building overall air leakage test.
    2. Component-by-component certification with quantitative projection of overall building performance compiled by a qualified commissioning contractor.

  a.      A previous testing of another project with the same component may certify a given component of the air barrier system.

  b.      Certified performance as determined by CMHC commissioning protocol.

c.      To be certified by window test according to ASTM E 283

d.      Certified by field mock-up test.


  1. Compliance test:
    1. Blower Door Test:

 a.      The General Contractor shall provide a blower test at his expense by a contractor approved by the Owner at the stage when the building is insulated, the vapor retarder is installed, and all drywall is installed, but before any interior trim work or finish floors have been installed.  The continuous air barrier must be in place for this test to be effective.

b.      The following openings shall be temporarily sealed by the general contractor for the test:

i.         All ventilation intake and exhaust hoods.   Intake and exhaust for rooftop units shall be sealed outdoors, so as to include the rooftop unit in the air leakage test.  Intake and exhaust grills for units within the building also shall be sealed at the exterior, in order to include the air handler and the ducting  in the air leakage test.  HVAC units with mechanically operated dampers on intake and exhaust openings may be tested with the dampers closed.

ii.       Any floor drains or plumbing stacks or drains open to the outside.

iii.      Any holes in exterior doors where hardware is not yet installed.

iv.     Outdoor combustion air duct to the boiler.

v.       Any other openings that are intentional and will be permanently closed off when construction is complete and the building is fully occupied.

c.      In addition, the blower door contractor shall verify the following before testing:

i.         That all windows and doors are closed and latched.

ii.       That the section of the building under test is effectively isolated from the remainder of the building (if the building is being tested in sections).

iii.       That the boiler and any other combustion equipment are off.

iv.     That wind speeds are below 15 mph for the duration of the test period.  Tests shall be postponed if wind speeds are above 15 mph.


  1. Depressurize:
    1. The building shall first be depressurized to 60 Pascals, and airflow measurements taken at that point and at each 10 Pascal reduction down to 10 Pascals.  Blower door contractor shall calculate insulated shell area  of the building and building internal volume.  Blower door contractor to provide the following output:

a.      Equivalent leakage area (ELA) and equivalent leakage ratio (ELR) at 4 Pascals.

 b.      Blower door CFM50.

 c.      Air changes per hour at 50 Pascals (ACH50).

d.      Estimated natural CFM.

e.      Estimated natural air changes per hour.

  1. Pressurize:

1.      Next, the blower door contractor should pressurize the building to 25 Pascals, and with a smoke stick, identify leakage areas.  Contact Owner’s Project Manager to participate in this testing, contractor should have an adequate supply of Pur Fill 1G foam, Tremco acoustical sealant, polyurethane caulk, fire-rated caulk, and 3M 8086 tape on hand to accomplish further air sealing as required.

  1. Minimum Air tightness Specification:  The building shall achieve a maximum air leakage rate of 0.18 cfm per square foot of shell area at 50 PA pressure differential from the inside to the outside (18 cfm50/100 square feet of exterior shell).  Exterior shell area shall exclude slab on grade area, but not below grade walls.  (Note: It is desirable to achieve an ELR (effective leakage area) of less than 0.5 square inches of “hole” per 100 square feet of building envelope).
  1. Conduct compliance test in the presence of the Owner.    The test results must be approved in writing by the Owner for each section test.
  1. The Contractor will cooperate fully with the compliance-testing contractor.

3.08        CLEAN-UP

  1. Clean up and recycling of construction material shall comply with SECTION 01505: CONSTRUCTION WASTE MANAGEMENT
  1. Remove excess materials, equipment, trash and debris associated with the air barrier installation activities from the project area and dispose of legally.
  1. Repair damage to adjacent work of other trades that has resulted from the air barrier installation.
  1. The applicator shall clean adjacent materials and surfaces and the work area to remove foreign materials resulting from the work.


  1. Clean work area daily by sweeping and disposing of debris and scraps in a location designated by the Contractor or Owner.
  1. Upon completion of the work of this Section in any given area, remove tools, equipment, and all rubbish and debris from the work area; leave area in broom-clean condition.